• Dt.Hinal Hingad

Uncover The Facts On Sugar

Sugar is also a carbohydrate which provides energy in the form of glucose. Sugar is a sweet form of carbohydrate which provides empty calories and no nutrients.

Sugar is a simple carbohydrate providing 4kcals per gram.

Simple carbohydrate is of two types :

1. Monosaccharides ( Glucose , fructose and galactose)

2. Disaccharides (Sucrose, Lactose and Maltose )

The phrase “Sugars” listed on the current Nutrition Facts label represents both naturally-occurring and added sugars and shows the amount (in grams) of sugar in one serving of the food.


Nutrition Facts On Sugar

Sugars occur as,

1. Naturally – present in the food naturally like the fruits , vegetables , milk , honey

2. Commercially – Sugar syrups prepared ( Maple syrup, corn syrup , high fructose syrup , brown sugar, etc)

3. Added sugars – commercially prepared sugars added to other food to sweeten them like fruit juices, jellies , jams , marmalades, pickles, bakery food products

Sugars are added to food to ,

· Enhance the flavour

· Preserve the food

· Add bulk/volume to the food

· Add texture

· Impart sweetness


HYPERGLYCAEMIA :

Hyperglycaemia is the medical term describing an abnormally high blood glucose (blood sugar) level.

Blood sugar spikes are caused when a simple sugar known as glucose builds up in your bloodstream. For people with diabetes, this happens because of the body’s inability to properly use glucose.


Sugar Fasting Range

(Blood Sugar Range)


Sugar High Symptoms

(Hyperglycaemia)


EARLY SYMPTOMS:

· Excessive thirst

· Increased hunger

· Increased urination

· Fatigue

· Weight gain/Weight loss

· Frequent infections

· Mouth and breathing changes

· Blurry vision

· Numbness

· Stomach pain

· Yeast infections

· Erectile dysfunction

· Slow healing cuts/wounds

· Headache

· Bloating

· Vomiting.

· Dehydration.

· Unusual fruity smell on the breath.

· Deep labored breathing or hyperventilation.

· Rapid heartbeat

· Confusion and disorientation.

· Low energy levels

· Acne

· Mood swings

· Tooth decay


Sugar Disease

Most of the food eaten is broken down into glucose and the body needs glucose because it’s the primary fuel that makes the muscles, organs, and brain work properly. But glucose can’t be used as fuel until it enters your cells.

Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, unlocks cells so that glucose can enter them. Without insulin, glucose keeps floating around in your bloodstream with nowhere to go, becoming increasingly more concentrated over time.

When glucose builds up in the bloodstream, the blood glucose (blood sugar) levels rise. Long term, this causes damage to organs, nerves, and blood vessels.

Blood sugar spikes occur in people with diabetes because they’re unable to use insulin effectively. Untreated high blood sugar can be dangerous, leading to a serious condition in diabetics called ketoacidosis. Chronic high blood sugar increases the likelihood of serious diabetes complications like heart disease, blindness, neuropathy, and kidney failure.

Chronic complications are as follows :



When the blood glucose levels exceed the normal ranges can lead to long term complications like :

  • Diabetic ketoacidosis

DKA occurs when the body does not have enough insulin to change sugar into energy. When there's not enough insulin, glucose stays in the blood and cannot be used for fuel.

Since the body still needs fuel for energy, it must then ;burn body fat instead.

When the body burns fat, it forms waste products called ketones, which build up in the blood and come out in the urine.

  • Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic non-ketotic syndrome

HHNS is a condition of high blood glucose that usually occurs only in people with type 2 diabetes. HHNS is short for hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome.

In some ways, HHNS is like DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. The difference is that people with type 2 diabetes rarely get ketones in their blood.

For people who have type 2 diabetes, their pancreas still makes some insulin. Even a small amount of insulin can change glucose into energy.

The body uses the sugar first before it has to use fat for fuel, so it rarely produces ketones.

  • Nerve damage

High blood sugar causes damage to the nerves and the nerves stop sending messages to different parts of the body. This is called Diabetic Neuropathy.Nerve damage can cause health problems ranging from mild numbness to pain that makes it hard to do normal activities.

There are 4 types of nere damage:

-Peripheral nerve damage

Peripheral nerve damage affects your hands, feet, legs, and arms.

Symptoms are as follows:

> Pain or increased sensitivity, especially at night.

> Numbness or weakness.

> Serious foot problems, such as ulcers, infections, and bone and joint pain

- Autonomic nerve damage

Autonomic nerve damage affects your heart, bladder, stomach, intestines, sex organs, or eyes. Symptoms may include:

> Bladder or bowel problems that may cause urine leakage, constipation, or diarrhea.

> Nausea, loss of appetite, and vomiting.

> Changes in how your eyes adjust from light to dark.

> Decreased sexual response, including trouble getting an erection in men or vaginal dryness in women.

- Proximal nerve damage

Proximal nerve damage affects nerves in the thighs, hips, buttocks, or legs. It can also affect the stomach and chest area. Symptoms may include:

> Severe pain in a hip and thigh or buttock.

> Trouble getting up from a sitting position.

> Severe stomach pain.

- Focal nerve damage

Focal nerve damage affects single nerves, most often in your hand, head, torso, or leg. Symptoms may include:

> Trouble focus in your vision or having double vision.

> Aches behind one eye.

> Not being able to move one side of your face (Bell’s palsy).

> Numbness or tingling in your hands or fingers.

> Weakness in your hand that may make you drop things

  • Eye complications

Hyperglycemia causes the lenses of your eyes to swell, which in turn leads to temporarily blurred vision. In more serious cases, untreated hyperglycemia can lead to a complication known as retinopathy. This is when high blood glucose damages the blood vessels in your retinas.

Vision problems related to diabetes usually occur in both eyes at the same time. Here are some of the most common early symptoms:

· Diabetic retinopathy · Cataract · Glaucoma · Macular edema · Blurry or wavy vision · Difficulty seeing at night or in dim lighting · Changing vision quality · Trouble with color vision · Darkened or empty spots in your field of vision · Loss of side or peripheral vision · Partial or total blindness

  • Cardiovascular diseases

Heart disease is a very common problem linked to diabetes, especially for people with type 2 diabetes.

High blood glucose and cholesterol levels can cause the blood vessels to narrow and clog.

Clogged blood vessels make it difficult for blood to reach all parts of the body. This can result in high blood pressure and increase your risk of heart attack or stroke.

  • Kidney damage

High blood glucose can damage the blood vessels in the kidneys and can cause kidney problems, called nephropathy.

The blood vessels in the kidneys act as a filter to dispose of waste products in the body.

For people with diabetes who have high blood glucose, the kidneys have to work harder to dispose of waste. Over time, this extra work can damage your kidneys.

  • Skin complications

People with prolonged hyperglycemia might be more prone to bacterial and fungal infections, such as boils, jock itch, athlete’s foot, and ringworm.

Other diabetic skin conditions can cause spots and lesions to develop, which may cause pain and itching. These include:

  • diabetic dermopathy.

  • acanthosis nigricans, which causes raised brown areas on the neck, groin, and armpits.

  • diabetic blisters, which most often develop on the extremities and are painless.



Replace Sugar High Medicine With Food

Eat more

  • Healthy fats from nuts, olive oil, fish oils, flax seeds, or avocados.

  • Fruits and vegetables—ideally fresh, the more colorful the better; whole fruit rather than juices.

  • High-fiber cereals and breads made from whole grains.

  • Fish and shellfish, organic chicken or turkey.

  • High-quality protein such as eggs, beans, low-fat dairy, and unsweetened yogurt.

  • Choose high-fiber, slow-release carbs

  • Add some healthy fat to your dessert

  • Eat sweets with a meal, rather than as a stand-alone snack

  • When you eat dessert, truly savor each bite

  • Check nutrition labels

  • Spot hidden sugar

  • Choose fats wisely

  • Eat at regularly set times

  • Keep a food diary

  • Get more active



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